A Short History of Medicine
2000 B.C. – “Here, eat this root.”
1000 B.C. – “That root is heathen, say this prayer.”
1850 A.D. – “That prayer is superstition, drink this potion.”
1940 A.D. – “That potion is snake oil, swallow this pill”
1985 A.D. – “That pill is ineffective, take this antibiotic.”
2000 A.D. – “That antibiotic is artificial. Here, eat this root.
The human civilization has completed a full circle – from root to root. We are perhaps living in the most exciting times where old is gold, and a bitter root is better than the sugar-laced pill.
Today, after being subjected to a battery of diagnostic tests, invasive procedures, and powerful drugs, the modern man has been reduced to a medical specimen, where the focus is on treating the disease alone. Our obsession with micro management of healthcare condition has resulted in unprecedented damage to a person’s wellness and psyche. While one condition gets treated, five more appear as side effects.
Somewhere down the line, the true definition of health has been lost.
Therefore, there is renewed interest in holistic healthcare where one attempts to look at a person from physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual angle. The value of pulse diagnosis, the effect of herbs, the magic of sunlight, the fullness of breath, is coming back into the regular healthcare methods. Concepts such as wellness, holistic helathcare, Yoga, fresh air, sunlight, herbs, vegetarianism, fasting, etc., are back with a bang.
The History of India’s Traditional Healthcare Systems
Before the advent of modern medicine, man had always turned to nature for answers. In times of ill health, discomfort and disease, man looked up to the elements – air, water, soil, fire, metals, plants & trees, animals, and more. He watched, experimented and learnt to make use of the bounties of nature; its curative and healing properties to heal himself. Centuries of observation, learning and sharing of knowledge gave rise to various systems of healing which we now call as ancient or traditional healthcare systems or therapies.
Any culture that roots back to age-old centuries has a wealth of wisdom, which is its real treasure. Curative, healing and preventive healthcare systems and remedial measures were integral part of family and community life, ingrained in almost all households. And that same culture never believed in holding back their knowledge as traditions were deep rooted into the spiritual quest of man.
New discoveries were made, pharmacopeia, methods, knowledge grew and was freely shared. Because there was free reign for exchange and sharing of knowledge, unique systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani flourished in India.
India’s indigenous healthcare systems took a backseat under the British Rule where missionary hospitals and healthcare institutions were established. Traditional systems of medicine were considered unsafe, unreliable and unholy (as medicine was deep seated in culture).
In the absence of government support, funds, or R&D, India’s traditional systems could not progress, develop or enhance its traditional and holistic medical systems, or bring it to the level and status it deserved.
Even the common man took to modern medicine, which indeed gave instant results, and had better social approval. Alternative medicine was/ is still considered to be second-tier option, only after one has exhausted the allopathic course. It is in moments of despair and helplessness that an average Indian looks up to nature healing.
Sanskrit, Arabic, Urdu, Dhakni, Tamil, Telugu, are some of the common languages in which the manuscripts have recorded a wealth of information. This knowledge has generally been passed down by word of mouth from generation to generation, and most of it has been described in ancient classical and other literature, often inaccessible to the common man and even when accessible, rarely understood. Therefore, traditional natural healing therapies got relegated to priests, hakims, grandmothers, and local alternative medicine practitioners. Most of the valuable data, books, manuals, manuscripts, have been lost, damaged or inaccessible to most.
The West Patents East – What went wrong?
Given the state of India’s traditional healthcare, inaccessibility issues, etc., there was no authority or ownership of these knowledge systems. The western world, by virtue of its quest for curative fixes- preventive medicinal concoctions-elixir of youth springs, assumed an authorativtive position and tried to fill in this gap.
Yoga scored over Aerobics, Ayurveda appealed to the soul, and Siddha was slow but sure. The beauty of these remedies reminded man to slow down, to think, to look upto nature, to introspect, to moderate, and to correct. As the west benfetited from most of the ancient remedires and principles, their interest to go deeper into the subject was natural.
It is true that because of the west, there has been a renewed interest in India’s ancient healthcare systems. In our quest to ape the west, we re-learn about Yoga, Ayurveda, and vegetables, thereby allowing the western world to assume precedence in these affairs. Whilst India or any traditional system would approve of its wide-spread use and its benefits to mankind, but patenting and calling it their invention was taking the matter too far. The age-old remedies, plants, herbs, minerals, formulae, concoctions, etc., existed since time immemorial and are not western inventions.
About 2,000 wrong patents concerning Indian systems of medicine were being granted every year at the international level, mainly due to the fact that India’s traditional medicine knowledge existed in manuscripts in local and ancient languages, which are neither accessible nor understood by the patent examiners at the international patent offices.
India has lost over 15,000 patents of medicinal plants to the West. A study conducted in 2000, 4,896 patents were granted by US PTO on medicinal plants, 80% on which were on plants of Indian origin. The officials have discovered around 5,000 patents issued at a cost of at least $150million for “medical plants and traditional systems”, at the global trademark offices. It is also estimated that there are about 1200 patents waiting… to patent what has been there since hundreds of years, in our ancient texts.
The legal battle for revoking patent for turmeric took 2 years. Neem took more than 10 years at the cost of $5 million, followed by battles for yogasanas, basmati rice, aloe vera, mustard, musk melon, aswagandha, bhang and more. The list is endless.
We now live in an era wherein we have to fight for what is right fully ours.
India’s stand on ancient healthcare information
India believes in sharing knowledge and has never attempted to withhold what is everyone’s right - the right to good health. The country never felt the need to patent or protect its information and knowledge. But in response to the winds of change that have brought in a culture of deceit, illegal infringement, blatant lies, unethical practices, growing intellectual rights, copyright issues, and the plethora of legal jargon, it had no choice but to wake up and protect what is rightfully Indian.
It has now become imperative to imperative to safeguard the sovereignty of this traditional knowledge and to protect it from being misappropriated in the form of patents on non-original innovations, and which has been a matter of national concern.
In the attempt to safeguard the traditional remedies, to protect these from illegal copyrights, etc, India has enbarked on the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). The project TKDL involves documentation of the traditional knowledge available in public domain in the form of existing literature related to Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Yoga, in digitized format in five international languages which are English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish.
What is the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)
- TKDL is a central platform which provides information on traditional knowledge existing in the country, in languages and format understandable by patent examiners at International Patent Offices (IPOs), so as to prevent the grant of wrong patents.
- TKDL acts as a bridge between the traditional knowledge information existing in local languages and the patent examiners at IPOs.
- TKDL’s aim is not to block patenting but to encourage genuine innovation, preventing traditional knowledge from being passed off as invention.
- TKDL is a collaborative project between:
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR),
Ministry of Science and Technology and Department of AYUSH,
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
and is being implemented at CSIR.
What is Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC)?
Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC), an innovative structured classification system for the purpose of systematic arrangement, dissemination and retrieval has been evolved for about 25,000 subgroups against few subgroups that was available in earlier version of the International Patent Classification (IPC), related to medicinal plants, minerals, animal resources, effects and diseases, methods of preparations, mode of administration, etc.
Who is compiling the TKDL?
An inter-disciplinary team of Traditional Medicine (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Yoga) experts, patent examiners, IT experts, scientists and technical officers are involved in creation of TKDL for Indian Systems of Medicine.
How do the TKDL experts compile the manuscritps and the ancient texts?
- Each Sloka is read and converted into a structured language using Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification by subject (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha or Yoga) experts.
- The codes are then filled into the data entry screen.
- The Slokas are also saved in the database.
- The translated version of all the TKRC codes is ported in the database.
- The abstraction is done by the subject experts.
- The codes once saved in meta data directory are converted in different languages based on Unicode technology.
The formulations are presently being converted into English, German, French Japanese and Spanish languages. The converted format of the formulation is readable and can be understood by a layman though it is targeted towards a patent examiner. Read more
The government, people, scientists, pundits, hakims, and the aam junta applaud this effort by the Indian government, to document, centralize, protect, and make available this ancient knowedlge.
Thanks to the effort of digitising the scripts, the laymen and the patent examiners have access to, and understanding of these incredible ancient knoweldge systems. TKDL may be the coup-de-gras for those 2000 patents in wa